Summary of the generalized linear models to test the variables affecting seed seedling and germination or survival of the seeds. Harden off and transplant after the danger of frost has passed. 1 filter paper. More than 90% of the seeds germinated, thus indicating excellent seed viability. A. houstonianum belongs to the Asteraceae family and it is native to Central America and Mexico. In all cases, data were tested to verify if the assumptions of ANOVA were met using the Shapiro-Wilk’s test for normality and Levene’s test for homogeneity of variance at a 0.05 level of significance. The first and second round of the experiments were conducted in April/May 2018 and June/July 2018, respectively. It can also be implied that lack of emergence from seeds buried deeper in the soil profile may be primarily due to absence of light. No, Is the Subject Area "Water stress" applicable to this article? Because germination data expressed as percentages lacked normal distribution, a generalized linear model (glm) was used to analyze seedling and germination or survival of the seeds with Table 1. In agricultural lands, soil disturbance in the form of light tillage or cultivation would probably reduce its germination ability. Soil pH is an important environmental factor affecting seed germination and various studies have been conducted to assess the effect of pH on germination of weed seeds [e.g. This species is a short-lived (annual or biennial) herbaceous plant growing 20–100 cm tall. For example, seeds of Malva neglecta can remain viable for over 100 years [35]. You can alternatively mist the soil before you plant the seeds. No, Is the Subject Area "Evolutionary emergence" applicable to this article? From the non-linear regression, it was estimated that soil depth for 50% inhibition (compared to that at the soil surface) of seedling emergence was approximately 2.5 mm. Seeds of A. houstonianum for this objective of the study were collected from the location described earlier. 15-18°C. Sow indoors. The Ageratum has flowers of different colors and shades. When to Sow Outside: Not recommended except for very mild climates, 2 to 4 weeks after your average last frost date. In cold climate zones ageratum is grown as an annual plant as it is a very heat-loving plant. Germination takes 10-15 days. PLoS ONE 14(11): How to care for Ageratum Houstonianum outside. Tap the media down with your fingers to create a smooth surface. No, Is the Subject Area "Invasive species" applicable to this article? Investigation, However, the germination of the seeds, in general, in all the studies did not exceed 85%. Your seeds definitely may have a little more kick in them than this list says, especially if stored properly. In our study, there was no germination of A. houstonianum seeds in water potential levels more negative than -1.0 thus suggesting that this species was moderately tolerant to moisture stress and may not germinate in drier environments. In recent years, it is reported to have a presence in all continents and pose serious threat to different ecosystems including community forests all over the world [7]. Unlike in the moisture stress study, actual data on germination is presented and not normalized to the pH 7 data. This suggested that neutral-to-alkaline soils were more suited for its germination than acidic soils. Transplant seedlings spacing them out 5cm (2") apart in trays and grow on. However, it is not known what the minimum light intensity level was for germination of A. houstonianum. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225430.g003. Methodology, For peat pellets, pour warm water on them according to directions and wait for them to expand. While in Kenya East Africa, it is used in traditional medicine for antiasthmatic, antispasmodic and haemostatic effects (Sharma and Sharma 200… Yes Yes For each experiment, the imposed treatments (water potential, pH, light, burial depth, and dormancy period) were considered as fixed effects, while replications and experimental runs were considered as random factors. Yuan and Wen [9], as mentioned above, conducted their study on A. conyzoides with a 12 h photoperiod of 25 μmol m-2 s-1. Results indicated that this species was moderately drought-tolerant because germination ceased beyond 0.51 MPa. This low, mounding plant produces button-like flowers in shades of white, pink and blue. Approximately 7,000 small seeds weight 15 gr and retain germination capacity for 3-4 years. The fruit of ageratum is an elongated wedge-shaped pentahedral seed. Fill a spray bottle with water and lightly mist the soil. Keep planting media moist during the germination period. An understanding of the biology and ecology of IAPS is essential for the development of management options, and this species is no exception. It grows in the shade or in the sun with little care. From the non-linear regression it was estimated that the water potential level that reduced seed germination by 50% was approximated from the regression as -0.67 MPa. Ageratum is a low growing shrub that blooms all summer. No, Is the Subject Area "Weeds" applicable to this article? Germination usually takes 7-21 days. The light intensity was measured at five locations in the chamber and the average was 1.4 W m-2. Choose a pot at least 200mm wide and deep. The first and second round of the experiments were conducted in March/April 2018 and June/July 2018, respectively. Funding: The authors received no specific funding for this work. Any seed that failed to germinate in each treatment was collected carefully with a tweezer, washed in distilled water, transferred to a Petri dish lined with a filter paper, 10 ml of distilled water was added, and the Petri dish was placed back into the chamber. We took the Safe Seed Pledge so you don't have to worry about the health of your family.wers look soft and fuzzy. However, very little information is available on the germination biology and ecology of this species. Therefore, the seeds of this species fall in the small category. Experiments were conducted in 2018 in the same seed germination chamber described above. The experiment was terminated in three weeks when no further emergence was observed. Echinochloa colona seeds germinated up to -5.5 MPa [14]. This study showed that A. houstonianum was species with seeds adapted to primarily surface-germination and emergence. Unlike many other blue flowers, ageratum tolerates some shade, making them a favorite choice for an elegant shady border or a container garden. Care & Maintenance: Ageratum Ideal temp. Greater germination would occur under neutral to alkaline soil conditions than under acidic soil conditions. Germination Instructions. Surface sow onto moist well-drained seed compost which has been firmed. Keep soil damp but not wet. Our findings are similar to reports for several other weed species that lack a light trigger for germination [29]. Many seeds undergo a period of dormancy after dispersal–such a period could be a few days to many decades or longer [34]. Writing – review & editing, Affiliation Easily raised from seed, these low growing, rounded little plants become smothered in dainty, Wedgwood blue, double flowers all summer long. Writing – review & editing, Affiliation Sow indoors. Twenty-five seeds of A. houstonianum were placed in Petri dishes lined with Whatman No. Means with the same letters are not significantly difference according to the Fisher’s Protected LSD test at α = 0.05. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225430.g001. Department of Viticulture and Enology, California State University, Fresno, California, United States of America. Data that failed to meet the assumptions of normality and were transformed using log10 procedure prior to analysis (data for the pH experiment did not need transformation). 6 to 8 weeks before your average last frost date. [25, 26]. Petri dishes were lined with Whatman No. Similarly, it was reported that light was a requirement for germination of ten Asteraceae species which had individual seed weights less than 0.5 mg [23]. A zipper bag in the refrigerator is a great place to keep seeds until you are ready to plant. Ageratum (Ageratum houstonianum) flowers are native to South and Central America and quite popular in the home garden. 1 filter paper and then 10 ml of the buffered solutions with various pH levels were added to each petri dish (according to the assigned treatment) with a pipette using the procedures described by Chachalis and Reddy [15]. Yes Do not exclude light as this aids germination. Get fast facts on starting vegetable, herb, and flower seeds for your garden. © Copyright 2020 Hearst Communications, Inc. Yes The experiment was arranged as a completely randomized design with eight replications and conducted twice. It has been suggested that PEG reduces the water potential of osmotic solutions and thus can be used for drought stress studies [13]. 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